There are some misconceptions that age is the main reason behind the problem of infertility but some issues in people are apparent at birth, while others arise later in life. Some of the major causes of infertility are listed below.
1. Abnormal Sperm Function or Production
Infertility caused by abnormal sperm production occurs due to undescended testicles and health problems, such as diabetes. Genetic defects, gonorrhoea, and chlamydia are also causes of infertility. The quality of sperm production is also affected by enlarged veins in the testes. Premature ejaculation and cystic fibrosis can result in issues with sperm delivery, while blockage of the testicles can lead to abnormal sperm production and function.
2. Ovulation Disorders
The polycystic ovarian syndrome affects the release of eggs from the ovaries. Ovulation disorder affects women who don't ovulate frequently or not at all. Ovarian insufficiency and hypothalamic amenorrhea also affect ovulation.
3. Age Factor
Getting older reduces women's egg counts in their ovaries. Their eggs also decrease in quality, increasing the risk of chromosomal abnormalities. Women's reproductive years are between the late teen and late 20s. Once women reach their mid-30s, fertility declines more rapidly.
The term endometriosis describes the growth of tissue from the uterine lining outside the uterus. In some cases, women with endometriosis do not experience painful symptoms. This condition is diagnosed by a medical professional during a surgical procedure. It causes scarring along the uterus, ovaries, and fallopian tubes which inhibits the transfer of eggs from the ovaries to the fallopian tubes. The worst cases result in endometrial cysts. The cysts develop inside the ovaries and block the fallopian tubes from collecting or releasing the ovum.
5. Use of Drugs
Male fertility is negatively affected by tobacco and cigarettes because they reduce semen quality. Alcohol consumption also decreases testosterone production, causing problems with sperm mobility and erection. Alcohol consumption also damages the liver, causing the testicles to shrink. The consumption of tobacco also interferes with ovulation. Alcohol consumption damages eggs, making them more likely to develop genetic defects that may lead to miscarriages.
Infertility treatment options depend on the cause and the solutions available. Infertility treatment requires physical, financial, time and psychological commitments. Some of the options available to treat infertility include medication, surgery, sperm retrieval and lifestyle changes.
Also Read: Does Vitamin D affect fertility?
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