Capital amounting to Rs 2,76,043 crore infused in public sector Banks (PSBs) since FY 2017-18, has been funded through recapitalisation bonds issued by the Central government and subscribed by the recapitalised banks for the full amount of capital infused.

According to information provided by the Union Ministry of Finance in a written reply in Lok Sabha on Monday, capital is infused by the Centre in PSBs from time to time to supplement their efforts to meet capital requirement.

As per Reserve Bank of India (RBI) guidelines and policy approved by banks' boards, non-performing assets (NPAs), including, those in respect of which full provisioning has been made on completion of four years, are removed from the balance-sheet of the bank concerned by way of write-off.

"Banks evaluate/consider the impact of write-offs as part of their regular exercise to clean up their balance-sheet, avail of tax benefit and optimise capital, in accordance with RBI guidelines and policy approved by their Boards. As per inputs received from RBI, scheduled commercial banks (SCBs) wrote-off an amount of Rs. 10,09,511 crore during the last five financial years, from FY 2017-18 to FY 2021-22," said the reply.

The borrowers of written-off loans continue to be liable for repayment, and the process of recovery of dues from the borrower in written-off loan accounts continues.

Banks continue to pursue recovery actions initiated in written-off accounts through various recovery mechanisms available, and through sale of NPAs, said the Ministry.

The reply further said that all PSBs have a well-established vigilance mechanism headed by a Chief Vigilance Officer directly appointed by the Centre.

CVOs of banks keep a close watch on various aspects of the bank's functioning. As per RBI instructions on the internal control and inspection/audit system in banks, the central bank has advised banks regarding fixing of staff accountability aspect of irregularities, malpractices, at all levels.

As banks write-off only those NPAs which have been fully provided for, and continue their efforts to recover the dues, write-off exercise does not amount to misappropriation of funds, added the Ministry.