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Here Is All About Vaccines, The Protection Period And Reactions As Odisha Kickstarts COVID Vaccination

Bhubaneswar:  The whole of the country, including Odisha, is all geared up to witness the V- Day (Vaccine day), and the time is quite right to know all minute details about the vaccinology.

In fact, Vaccinology is the study that tells how a vaccine works and what will be its relationship with the host (means the recipient who will take the shot from tomorrow), when injected into the body. It also sheds light on the vaccine delivery technology and the clinical evaluation of the vaccines – like how it works, reacts in the body and how long will it protect you.

However, it needs to be reminded here that as per the worldwide studies, the natural immunity against Covid-19 lasts for around 5-8 months.

As we are entering into the vaccine era, now let’s take a look at the reactions in the host, the immunity period, effectiveness and cost of vaccines on the shelf. First the …

VACCINE REACTIONS

As vaccination starts in Odisha, time is ripe to know about vaccine reactions. What happens when you take Covid-19 vaccines?

*As per studies, reactions to vaccines are very normal. The reactions signs are listed below.

*There may be redness, swelling or pain around the injection site. Fatigue, fever, headache and aching limbs are also not uncommon in the first three days after vaccination.

BUT DONT PANIC

Doctors say: These are normal reactions, which are mild and will subside after a few days.

“In fact, these signs show that the vaccine is working, because it stimulates the immune system and the body forms antibodies against an infection that is only “feigned” by the vaccination,” said Dr PC Sahoo, former CDMO, Capital Hospital, Bhubaneswar.

NOW THE VACCINE INFO

Covishield:  As per the Serum India Institute (SII), the cost in India will be Rs 1000 for two doses (but the Centre has purchased at Rs 210/dose, which SII called the ‘special price’).

Effectiveness: over 70 per cent

Immunity Duration: Not specified by the Company.

How It Works: As the Coronavirus spike proteins get it attached to the cell of the host (human beings), scientists have devised a vaccine that triggers the immune alarm of the body to pour out antibodies to destruct the virus and blocks its spike, whereby the pandemic virus cannot enter into the cell to replicate and infect the host seriously.

Technology: Scientists added the gene (DNA) of coronavirus spike proteins to another virus called adenovirus (which is the common virus that infects lungs, airways, eyes etc. and causes flu-like symptoms). The scientists here took a modified version of chimpanzee adenovirus called ChAdOx1.They engineered it in such a way that the adenovirus can enter cells but will not replicate there.

While the DNA will produce the spike proteins of the coronavirus in the cells, the adenovirus will provoke the immune system by switching on the alarm system of body cells of the host. This alarm will take on very strongly to the spike proteins.

After the death of the vaccinated cell, the T-cells spot out the spike fragment and induce the body to produce immune cells, which are also known as B cells. They will pour out antibodies that block the spikes of coronavirus.

Covaxin – the indigenous vaccine: Price at present Rs 310 (As per Bharat biotech, the price will drop to Rs 100/dose later).

Effectiveness: over 60 per cent

Immunity Duration: 6-12 months

How It Works: Same as Covishield.

Moderna (US): Rs 2,555 per dose (a mRNA vaccine)

Effectiveness: 94 per cent

Immunity Duration: at least 1 year.

How It Works: As per US-based CDC (Centre for Disease Control and Prevention), mRNA (messenger RNA) vaccines are a new type of vaccine to protect against infectious diseases.

To trigger an immune response, vaccines (Covishield , Covaxin) put a weakened or inactivated germ (adenovirus) into our bodies. But mRNA vaccines will not do that.

Instead, they teach our cells how to make a protein—or even just a piece of a protein—that triggers an immune response inside our bodies. That immune response, which produces antibodies, is what protects us from getting infected if the real virus enters our bodies.

Pfizer-BioTech (US): Rs 1424/dose (a mRNA vaccine)

Effectiveness: 95 per cent

Immunity Duration: Data not available

How It Works: Same as Moderna mRNA

Sputnik V (Russia): costs Rs 730/dose

Effectiveness – over 90 per cent

Immunity duration: Claimed at around 2-years.

How It Works: Same as Covishield and Covaxin

Sinovac (China):  costs Rs 2,190

Effectiveness: A Brazil study puts it at 50 per cent

Immunity Duration: No data available

How It Works: Same as Covishield and Covaxin

Johnson &Johnson: The cost tag is Rs 730/dose (the company claims its vaccine will be of one dose only. The trial is still continuing)

Effectiveness: over 80 per cent

How It Works: Same as Covishield and Covaxin

Immunity Duration:  As per the company data, antibodies are generated on the 29th day. The big fact is the level of antibody remains the same till 71 days (over 2-months).

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