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Sanjeev Kumar Patro

News Highlights

  • As per Tamil Nadu Fireworks Association, the price of green crackers are 30 percent more than conventional crackers. They claim that all varieties are available.

For the revellers, it's Dhoom Macha Le!. The dhoom minus smoke is back this Diwali in Odisha. The Orissa High Court has given a green signal to the use of green crackers in the State from 8 pm-10 pm. 

As per the HC order, the green crackers approved by Petroleum and Explosive Safety Organisation (PESO) are permitted in the State. This order means much. All types of fireworks have been allowed. Name it and find the array of green crackers - From whistling rocket, sparklers to crackers having 90 decibel sound limit - on the shelf for sale.

Fireworks/Crackers List By PESO 
•    Pencil crackers (Shola Pataka)
•    Cobra Eggs
•    Coloured Matches
•    Flower Pots (minus barium nitrate)
•    Rockets
•    Whistling Rocket
•    Roman Candle
•    Whistling Rocket
•    Sparklers
•    Star Match
•    Wheelor Chakra
•    Twinkling star
However, a ban is there for the locally made firecrackers in the State. Because HC order has clearly mentioned green crackers approved by PESO.

What Are Green Crackers?

Post the complete ban on firecrackers by Supreme Court in 2017, the Modi government had told the Apex court in 2018 that henceforth green crackers will be manufactured in the country under the technological guidance of the Council of Scientific & Industrial Research’s National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (CSIR-NEERI). 

As per CSIR-NEERI, fireworks/firecrackers made with a reduction in the size of shell, elimination of ash usage etc., reduced usage of raw materials in the compositions, use of additives as dust suppressants to reduce emissions with specific reference to particulate matter(PM*),  SO2 and NO2.

It also has added that when one burst, the firecrackers have such a chemical formulation that it produces water molecules, so as to absorb the dust. Moreover, they don’t contain chemicals like lithium, barium, lead, and arsenic. 

The CSIR-NEERI has listed three types of green firecrackers as given below, which are approved by PESO.
•    Safe Water Releaser (SWAS), 
•    Safe Thermite Cracker (STAR)  
•    Safe Minimal Aluminium (SAFAL) crackers
SWAS
As per CSIR, the USP is it releases water vapour and /or air as dust suppressant and diluent for gaseous emissions. But gives the revellers a matching performance in sound with conventional crackers.
 These green crackers eliminate usage of (KNO3) Potassium nitrate and Sulphur . As a consequence, there will be a 30-35 percent reduction in particulate matter, SO2 and NOx emission. 
The sound will be same as that of commercial conventional crackers (105-110 dBA).
These crackers have a shelf life upto 3 weeks with consistent performance.

STAR
The crackers with this trademark eliminates usage of KNO3 and S, but it reduces the particulate matter, SO2 and NOx by 35-40 percent, The sound intensity same as SWAS. The rate cjart of this trademark cracker is higher than SWAS.

SAFAL
This group of green crackers has minimal aluminium usage. Reduces PM by 35-40 percent vis-a-vis the conventional commercial crackers. Sound intensity same as SWAS. 

About Local Crackers
•    Gunpowder, which is 75 percent Potassium Nitrate, 15 percent charcoal and 10 percent sulphur are the spine of crackers. 
•    Use Phosphorus that burns very quickly in the air and is responsible for glowing in dark diwali nights.
•    Strontium carbonate is used in crackers for red colour.
•    Calcium carbonate for orange coloured fireworks.
•    Sodium nitrate for Yellow Firework
•     Barium Chloride green Firework
•    Copper chloride for blue fireworks.

But the heavy use of such chemicals (metals + non-metals) emit high smoke filled with particulate matters that increase the PM level by 30 percent. Therefore, CSIR has come up with green crackers that have no ingredients like sulphur, potassium nitrate and charcoal.

Green Comes With A Price?
As per Tamil Nadu Fireworks Association, the price of green crackers are 30 percent more than conventional crackers. They claim that all varieties are available. As per CSIR October 2021 data, 874 firecracker manufacturers have signed with CSIR for green crackers. 
While 90 per cent belong to Tamil Nadu, the rest were from Maharashtra, Haryana, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh and Delhi. 

No green firecracker unit in Odisha as of today.

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