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The University Grants Commission (UGC) has declared 24 "self-styled" institutes fake and found two more in violation of norms, Union Education Minister Dharmendra Pradhan said on Monday.

Pradhan made the statement in response to a written question in Lok Sabha.

Based on the complaints received from the students, parents, general public and also through electronic print media, UGC has declared 24 self styled institutes as fake universities.

"Besides, two more institutes namely Bhartiya Shiksha Parishad, Lucknow, UP and Indian Institute of Planning and Management (IIPM), Qutub Enclave, New Delhi are also found functioning in violation of the UGC Act, 1956. The matters of Bhartiya Shiksha Parishad, Lucknow and IIPM, New Delhi are sub-judice in the court," he added.

Uttar Pradesh has the highest eight such fake universities -- Varanaseya Sanskrit Vishwavidyalaya, Varanasi; Mahila Gram Vidyapith, Allahabad; Gandhi Hindi Vidyapith, Allahabad; National University of Electro Complex Homeopathy, Kanpur; Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose Open University, Aligarh; Uttar Pradesh Vishwavidyalaya, Mathura; Maharana Pratap Shiksha Niketan Vishwavidyalaya, Pratapgarh and Indraprastha Shiksha Parishad, Noida.

Delhi has seven such fake universities Commercial University Ltd, United Nations University, Vocational University, ADR Centric Juridicial University, Indian Institution of Science and Engineering, Vishwakarma Open University for Self Employment and Adhyatmik Vishwavidyalaya (Spiritual University).

Odisha and West Bengal have two such universities each. These are: Indian Institute of Alternative Medicine, Kolkata and Institute of Alternative Medicine and Research, Kolkata as well as Nababharat Shiksha Parishad, Rourkela and North Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology.

Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Puducherry and Maharashtra have one fake university each.

They are Sree Bodhi Academy of Higher Education, Puducherry; Christ New Testament Deemed University, Andhra Pradesh; Raja Arabic University, Nagpur; St John's University, Kerala and Badaganvi Sarkar World Open University Education Society, Karnataka.

Elaborating on the steps taking by the UGC against the fake or non-recognised universities, Pradhan said, "the UGC issues public notices about the list of fake universities/institutes in national Hindi and English newspapers."

He said, "The commission writes letters to state chief secretaries, Education secretaries and principal secretaries to take action against such universities located in their jurisdiction".

"Show cause and warning notices are issued to the unauthorized institutes awarding invalid degrees when any self-styled institution is found or noticed functioning in violation of the UGC Act, 1956." 

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