Largest study of cancer causes in India
Cancer incidence in India is expected to increase by more than two thirds over the next two decades to approximately 1.7 million new cases per year. The INDOX Cancer Research Network, a partnership between the University of Oxford and 12 of India`s top comprehensive cancer centres, will conduct a large study, involving as many as 30,000 people in total at 12 centres across India.
Dr Raghib Ali, director of the INDOX Cancer Research Network, says: "This is the biggest study to date of risk factors associated with cancer in India. Cancer is increasing in India. Although it is increasing from a low level because of India`s size if it reaches levels seen in the West, many millions of people will be affected".
He added: "If we can understand the causes of cancer in India better, we can hope to take steps to change some of these factors and prevent an epidemic of cancer." The study will investigate lifestyle, diet and genetic factors associated with the most common cancers in India ? breast, bowel, lymphoma, lung, stomach, gallbladder, oesophageal, cervical, and head and neck cancers.
Two of these studies ? in breast and bowel cancer have already begun and are expected to be complete in two years time. The researchers will recruit a total of 10,000 people newly diagnosed with these two cancers, and a further 10,000 people as healthy controls.
The study it should provide evidence on whether vegetarianism or common spices in the Indian diet have a beneficial effect in lowering the risk of cancer and whether chewing tobacco, burning wood as a fuel indoors, and increasingly Western lifestyles in Indian cities are having a detrimental effect. Cancer, often thought of as a disease of the rich West, is now the second leading cause of death in many low- and middle-income countries, including India.
By 2020, it is estimated that 70 per cent of all cancer cases will be in these lower income countries and approximately one fifth of these will be in India alone. Mortality rates for cancer are much higher in India than in the West because the cost of treatment, social stigmas and lack of awareness of the signs of cancer prevent many people from coming forward for treatment. Yet the vast majority of studies into cancer risks have been in Western populations, with very few in India. So it is not known whether the same factors have an effect in India.
Previously the biggest studies of this type in India have been limited to a few hundred people. Breast cancer cases are on the rise in India. It is now the second most common cancer in women after cervical cancer, and in urban areas it has overtaken cervical cancer to be the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women. Bowel cancer is much less common in India than in Western countries, but the reasons for this are unclear.
This has remained the case despite the rapid economic and social change in India which has
been accompanied by rises in conditions like heart disease, diabetes and other cancers. Study participants will fill in questionnaires about lifestyle, diet, exercise, smoking and alcohol; and have their height and weight measured.
By comparing factors common across those with cancer with the group of healthy controls, the researchers in this "case-control study" aim to find associations between diet and lifestyle and risk of different types of cancer in India. In particular, life-long vegetarianism is much more common in India than in other parts of the world, so this is a unique opportunity to see if never eating meat has any protective effect against these cancers.
"The unique value of the INDOX collaboration is its ability to undertake large-scale studies and thus provide high quality and reliable scientific evidence," said Dr Toral Gathani, INDOX Head of Epidemiology at the University of Oxford. The principal investigators for the study are Professor Dame Valerie Beral, Dr Toral Gathani and Dr Raghib Ali at the University of Oxford; Professor Vinod Raina and Dr Atul Sharma at AIMS in New Delhi; Dr Raghunadharao Digumarti of Nizams Institute of Medical Sciences, Hyderabad; Dr C S Pramesh, Professor Mohandas Mallath and Dr Reena Nair of Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai; Dr Raju Titus Chacko at Christian Medical College, Vellore; and Paul Sebastian of the Regional Cancer Centre in Trivandrum.
INDOX is a partnership between Oxford University and 12 of the top cancer centres in India:Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences, Cochin, Kerala; Birla Cancer Center, Jaipur; Cachar Cancer Hospital & Research Centre, Silchar; Christian Medical College, Vellore; G.
Kuppuswamy Naidu Memorial Hospital, Coimbatore; Gujarat Cancer Research Institute, Ahmedabad; Indira Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Patna; Institute Rotary Cancer Hospital, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi; Kidwai Memorial Institute of Oncology, Bangalore; Nizams Institute of Medical Sciences, Hyderabad; Regional Cancer Centre, Thiruvananthapuram, and Tata Memorial Hospital, Parel, Mumbai.