The 2019 Balakot airstrike, Pulwama attack and the 2016 surgical strike will be part of Lucknow University's (LU) defence studies' syllabus from the coming academic session 2023-24.

The new addition to the syllabus has been approved in the board meeting of defence studies department and will be taught to B.A. sixth semester students.

Prof O.P. Shukla, head of defence studies, said: "The 2016 surgical strike and 2019 Balakot airstrike have been included in defence studies syllabus as per the New Education Policy under the theme of 'Nation First: No Second Thought on National Security'. Students will also be studying about the Pulwama attack.

"In the Balakot airstrike topic, we will teach that Indian Air Force's airstrike were in retaliation to the Pulwama attack that took place on February 26, 2019. The operation was codenamed Operation Bandar. Similarly, every detail about the surgical strike 2016 will be taught to students. Also, we have added Bhopal gas tragedy of 1984 to the syllabus."

Meanwhile, postgraduate students will study new weapons, role of chemical and biological technology and its relationship with the army and all about new military technology and conventional weapons.

Earlier, the Uttar Pradesh government had amended the syllabus for defence studies in state universities and had directed to include topics on the Pulwama attack and surgical strike under the National Education Policy.